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Web site Developer I Advertising and marketing I Social Media Advertising and marketing I Content material Creators I Branding Creators I Administration I System SolutionBuilding Net Layouts For Twin-Display screen And Foldable Units — Smashing Journal

Web site Developer I Advertising and marketing I Social Media Advertising and marketing I Content material Creators I Branding Creators I Administration I System SolutionBuilding Net Layouts For Twin-Display screen And Foldable Units — Smashing Journal

Web site Developer I Advertising and marketing I Social Media Advertising and marketing I Content material Creators I Branding Creators I Administration I System Resolution

Fast abstract ↬
Twin-screen gadgets have been available on the market for practically three years. In that point new net platform applied sciences have been constructed with developer suggestions to allow structure on the net that adapts to those gadgets. These net platform capabilities combine with current ideas, such because the viewport and media queries, in order that builders and designers can spend extra time ideating about how you can leverage two shows to create enhanced experiences somewhat than studying a brand new set of code to construct them.

It’s now been greater than two years because the Samsung Galaxy Fold and Floor Duo had been launched to the world. Since then, the Floor Duo 2, Samsung Galaxy Z Fold 3 and Galaxy Z Flip 3 have all hit the market. Foldable gadgets can be found to buy, and are at present being utilized by shoppers immediately, and with it comes a possibility the place we, as builders, can begin to discover this new class of gadget and the following evolution in responsive design.

The APIs that had been initially designed to resolve for constructing layouts on dual-screen gadgets have gone by way of some revisions after suggestions from builders who used the APIs in browser origin trials. The gorgeous factor about these APIs is that they combine with current ideas, so designers and builders don’t need to spend time studying new ideas, however can take into consideration how you can construct enhanced experiences for customers on dual-screen gadgets.

Twin display screen and foldable gadgets are simply the following step in responsive design, so that they’re considered as one other responsive design goal that we will model for with media options. We already use media options and queries to focus on desktops, tablets, and cellphones immediately, and now we’ve the CSS Viewport Segments media function to focus on our foldable and dual-screen gadgets.

horizontal-viewport-segments

The viewport segments media question can have two values. The primary one is horizontal-viewport-segments, and this represents the state of the gadget when the gadget hinge is vertical and the viewports are cut up by the {hardware} hinge or fold into columns.

A foldable device illustration with displays side-by-side
The horizonal-viewport-segment targets the gadget when the hinge is within the vertical fold posture. (Massive preview)

To serve kinds particularly for a foldable gadget on this orientation we might write the next:

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) {
// Types particular to the gadget on this orientation
}

The integer represents the variety of viewports current within the gadget orientation. When the gadget is within the vertical fold posture like a guide, we’ve two distinct viewports within the horizontal path and just one viewport within the vertical path.

We are able to additionally mix our media queries to focus on twin display screen gadgets and sure viewport widths to serve up particular kinds:

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) and (min-width: 540px) {
    physique {
        background: yellow;
    }
}

vertical-viewport-segments

Our second worth for the viewport segments media function is vertical-viewport-segments, and that is the state of the gadget when the gadget hinge is horizontal, and the {hardware} hinge splits our viewports into rows.

A foldable device illustration with displays stacked on top of each other
The vertical-viewport-segments targets the gadget within the horizontal fold posture. (Massive preview)

To focus on gadgets which might be rotated on this path we might use the next code:

@media (vertical-viewport-segments: 2) {
    // Types particular to the gadget on this orientation
}
Extra after soar! Proceed studying beneath ↓

Utilizing JavaScript To Detect Foldable Units

There are cases the place you might not be ready or wish to use CSS media queries to detect whether or not your consumer is on a foldable gadget, and that is the place the JavaScript API is available in. Initially, a brand-new API referred to as Home windows Segments Enumeration was proposed, however after the suggestions from the developer group by way of origin trials, it made extra sense to construct off the present Visible Viewport API draft specification.

Viewport Segments Property

Viewport segments symbolize the areas of the window that reside on separate shows which might be adjoining to one another. To detect a dual-screen gadget you’ll question the segments property with the next code:

const segments = window.visualViewport.segments;

The worth returned from this question will likely be an array of DOMRects that point out what number of viewports there are. If there is just one viewport phase, the question will return null, and is carried out this approach to forestall future compatibility points, in order that builders don’t begin utilizing visualViewport.segments[0] to focus on single-screen gadgets.

On dual-screen gadgets, the question will return 2 DOMRects, representing the two viewports out there when the browser window is spanning throughout the fold.

This worth we’ve saved within the segments fixed is an immutable snapshot of the gadget state when the attribute was queried, and if the browser window is resized or the gadget is rotated, the viewport segments beforehand retrieved are not legitimate and should be queried once more by way of a resize or orientation occasion (or each).

In case you resize the browser window to span throughout just one show area, we’ll fireplace the resize occasion.

In case you rotate the gadget, it will fireplace each the resize and orientation occasion, and you should use the occasions to question the attribute once more to get the present state of the browser show areas.

window.addEventListener("resize", operate() {
    const segments = window.visualViewport.segments;
    console.log(segments.size); *// 1*
});

When To Use The JavaScript API vs The CSS Media Options To Detect Units

Each the CSS media options and JavaScript phase property will detect a dual-screen gadget, however the JavaScript property is finest used when there’s no CSS getting used, which might occur whenever you’re working with objects in Canvas2D and WebGL. An instance could be a recreation that you just’re creating that might leverage each screens.

Utilizing CSS env() Variables

Along with the CSS media options, six new CSS atmosphere variables have been launched to assist builders calculate the geometry of the show areas, calculate the geometry of the hinge space when it’s being obscured by a bodily {hardware} function like on the Floor Duo, and so they can be used to assist place content material with the bounds of every show area.

The six new atmosphere variables are as follows:

  • env(viewport-segment-width <x> <y>);
  • env(viewport-segment-height <x> <y>);
  • env(viewport-segment-top <x> <y>);
  • env(viewport-segment-left <x> <y>);
  • env(viewport-segment-bottom <x> <y>);
  • env(viewport-segment-right <x> <y>);

The x and y positions symbolize the two-dimensional grid created by {hardware} options that separate every viewport phase, with the coordinates 0,0 beginning on the top-left phase.

The environment variables laid out on each display screen with the integers for each display
Atmosphere variables outline the place and dimensions of a logically separate area of the viewport. (Massive preview)

When you’ve got a tool that’s within the vertical fold posture with the viewports facet by facet, the viewport phase on the left could be represented by env(viewport-segment-width 0 0), and the one on the appropriate could be represented by env(viewport-segment-width 1 0). In case you turned the gadget into the horizontal fold posture with the viewports stacked, the highest could be represented by env(viewport-segment-height 0 0), and the underside viewport by env(viewport-segment-height 0 1).

When utilizing env(viewport-segment-width) and env(viewport-segment-width), along with the indices, we will set a fallback worth like the next:

env(viewport-segment-width 0 0, 100%);

However this extra fallback worth is elective and as much as the discretion of the writer, in the event that they’d like to incorporate it.

Calculate The Hinge Width

When you’ve got a tool that has a hinge obscured by {hardware} options, you’re in a position to calculate it utilizing the atmosphere variables supplied.

A foldable device in the horiztonal position
We are able to calculate the gadget hinge with the atmosphere variables. (Massive preview)

In our instance, we’ve a tool within the vertical posture and wish to discover the hinge width, in order that no content material is obscured. We’ll subtract the left viewport phase of the appropriate show from the appropriate viewport phase of the left show:

calc(env(viewport-segment-left 1 0) - env(viewport-segment-right 0 0));

Putting Content material With The CSS env() Variables

We are able to use the CSS atmosphere variables to position content material inside the show area boundaries, and these are particularly useful if you wish to place content material instantly in opposition to the hinge or fold.

In our instance beneath, we’re going to position a picture instantly in opposition to the hinge within the first show area on the left. This space is the appropriate phase of the viewport, so we’ll use viewport-segment-right to position it with the next code:

img {
    max-width: 400px;
}

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) { 
    img {
        place: absolute;
        left: env(viewport-segment-right 0 0);
    }
}

If we emulate our display screen within the Edge Developer Instruments in Floor Duo mode, we’ll get the next structure:

A Surface Duo emulated layout in the browser with an image on the right display and text on the left
Initially inserting the picture in our structure with the atmosphere variable places it within the unsuitable show area. (Massive preview)

This isn’t what we wished. The picture ought to be within the show area on the left facet.

As a result of the picture is totally positioned with the left property, the left fringe of the picture finally ends up aligned to the viewport-segment-right show space.

We then have to subtract the width of the picture from our surroundings variable to get the picture aligned to the right hinge edge:

img {
    max-width: 400px;
}

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) { 
    img {
        place: absolute;
        left: calc(env(viewport-segment-right 0 0) - 400px);
    }
}
A layout in the Surface Duo emulated in the browser with text and image both in the left display
Subtracting the picture width from the viewport phase will place it alongside the hinge within the left show. (Massive preview)

And now we’ve the picture positioned the place we wish it. For different examples on how you can align objects alongside the hinge, you may try this straightforward field demo. Open the Edge Developer Instruments > System Emulation after which select Floor Duo and guarantee your Duo emulation is within the correction orientation posture.

Placing It All Collectively: Let’s Construct A Recipe Web page That Adapts To A Twin Display screen System

As somebody who consistently makes use of her cellphone whereas cooking, a recipe web site that might adapt once I’m on my dual-screen gadget could be so useful. Let’s stroll by way of how to consider adapting a person recipe web page for it.

I wish to take into consideration how I’m going to chunk out my foremost content material. Sometimes, at minimal, I see a recipe title, what number of servings it makes, how lengthy it’s going to take to cook dinner, a picture or a number of photographs, the substances, and the steps to make the dish.

Once I sketch out my wireframe, I get the next:

A sketch of how my website should be laid out on a desktop
A normal structure for a recipe web page on desktop. (Massive preview)

I need my title and the recipe particulars on the very high, adopted by a picture that’s going to take up the entire content material width, then the substances checklist, and the recipe steps. I don’t wish to stack the latter two content material teams, as a result of the ingredient checklist could have numerous white house to the appropriate of it if I stack them, so I need the steps to sit down subsequent to the substances, giving me two columns beneath the picture.

CSS Grid Or Flexbox For Structure?

I understand how I wish to lay this recipe out on a traditional desktop display screen, and there are a number of methods I can go about coding this structure and grouping content material, however how I group it, and what structure I wish to obtain on a dual-screen gadget will should be thought of earlier than I code. Based mostly on the sketch I did for a desktop view, I might use a mixture of flexbox and CSS Grid to realize the structure I need, the place I group the substances and steps in a flex container. However let me sketch out how I need my web page to show on a twin display screen.

A sketch of how my website should be laid out on a dual screen device
The best structure on a foldable gadget within the vertical fold place splits the con-tent up by show so it isn’t obscured by the hinge. (Massive preview)

If I need extra flexibility in structure, then I can’t group my substances and steps in a flex container, in any other case, there’s going to be an enormous hole of white house in whichever column the picture doesn’t go into.

A sketch of how my website would be laid out if I used flexbox, creating a large gap between content on a dual screen device
If I solely use flexbox for this structure, it’s going to create some spacing gaps I wish to keep away from having to hack round. (Massive preview)

Including Our Content material

I’m going to make use of nothing however CSS Grid for the desktop and dual-screen layouts. So, let’s construct out our content material.

<foremost>
    <part class="recipe">
        <div class="recipe-meta">
            … <!—Accommodates our recipe title, yield and servings --> 
        </div>
        <img src="https://smashingmagazine.com/2022/03/building-web-layouts-dual-screen-foldable-devices/imgs/pasta.jpg" alt="Pasta carbonara photographed from above on a country plate" />
        <div class="recipe-details__ingredients">
            …<!— Accommodates our substances checklist --> 
        </div>
        <div class="recipe-details__preparation">
            … <!— Accommodates our checklist of steps to place the substances collectively -->
        </div> 
    </part>
</foremost>

Subsequent, let’s construct the construction of the web page. I’m going to outline my grid: I solely need three columns, and I need these to be an equal fraction of the container.

.recipe {
show: grid;
grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr);

Subsequent, I’m going to outline my rows, and I’m going to make use of grid-auto-rows with minmax, in order that my rows are a minimal of 175px however can develop to a max of the maximal content material peak.

grid-auto-rows: minmax(175px, max-content);

Then I’m going so as to add a couple of extra properties: my grip-gap, my max-content width, and a margin to heart my structure on the web page.

grid-gap: 1rem;
max-width: 64rem;
margin: 0 auto;
}

I’m then going to position my content material into the grid I’ve outlined:

.recipe-meta {
    grid-column: 1 / 4;
}

.recipe-meta p {
    margin: 0;
}

img {
    width: 100%;
    grid-column: 1 / 4;
}

.recipe-details__ingredients {
    grid-row: 3;
}

.recipe-details__preparation {
    grid-column: 2 / 4;
    grid-row: 3;
}

And that’s going to offer me the structure primarily based on my sketch:

Screenshot of my website laid out on desktop with CSS Grid guides turned on
The structure renders as anticipated on desktop. (Massive preview)

Nice! However what about my dual-screen structure? Let’s dive in and begin with our horizontal-viewport media function and our grid for twin screens.

Utilizing Media Queries And Adjusting The Container Structure

First, that is what my structure appears like on a twin display screen proper now:

Screenshot of my website emulated on a Surface Duo
With none twin display screen code carried out, if a consumer needs to span the browser throughout two shows, that is what the web page would appear like. (Massive preview)

And if we scroll down:

Screenshot of my website emulated on a Surface Duo showing content being ob-scured by the device hinge
The content material is obscured by the hinge if a consumer chooses to span throughout each shows. (Massive preview)

Not nice. Our content material is being obscured by the hinge, so let me begin redefining my grid.

For my grid columns I’m nonetheless going to make use of three columns, however I need one column to take up the primary viewport phase on the left, and the opposite two cut up on the appropriate viewport phase, so I’d get to make use of my CSS atmosphere variable env(viewport-segment-width 0 0) which tells the browser, for my first column, I need it to occupy the entire viewport of the primary show area.

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) { 

/* Physique kinds for smaller screens */
physique {
        font: 1.3em/1.8 base, 'Playfair Show', serif;
        margin: 0;
    }

.recipe {
    grid-template-columns: env(viewport-segment-width 0 0 1fr 1fr;
    grid-template-rows: repeat(2, 175px) minmax(175px, max-content);
}

}

For my rows, I need slightly extra flexibility within the placement, so I’m going to repeat two rows of 175px, which is concerning the peak of the container with the recipe title, yield, and time info, and the rows after that ought to match what I outlined in my grid initially.

If I examine my design within the DevTools, I can see that the width and margin I set on my recipe container initially are pushing the grid strains that I wish to be aligned with my viewport phase into the appropriate viewport phase.

Screenshot of my website on a Surface Duo with the layout split between displays, so no content is obscured
After including my code, my content material is not obscured however nonetheless wants some spacing changes. (Massive preview)

To reset this, I’m going to reset my margin and max-width.

@media (horizontal-viewport-segments: 2) { 

.recipe {
    grid-template-columns: env(viewport-segment-width 0 0) 1fr 1fr;
    grid-template-rows: repeat(2, 175px) minmax(175px, max-content);
    margin: 0;
    max-width: 100%;
}

}
Screenshot of my website on a Surface Duo with margin and padding reset
Resetting my margin and padding obscures content material in the appropriate show. (Massive preview)

And now I’m going to position my content material inside the grid and modify my structure.

.recipe-meta {
    grid-column: 1 / 2;
    padding: 0 2rem;
}

img {
    grid-column: 2 / 4;
    grid-row: 1 / 3;

    width: 100%;
    peak: 100%;
    object-fit: cowl;
    /* essential to maintain the picture inside the grid strains */
}

.recipe-details__ingredients {
    grid-row: 2;
    padding: 0 2rem; 
}

.recipe-details__preparation {
    grid-column: 2 / 4;
    grid-row: 3; 
    padding: 0 2rem 0 3rem; 
}

I’ve utilized padding to the content material apart from the picture which I’ve determined I wish to span the entire viewport. For the content material beneath the picture, as a result of nature of the gridline beginning beneath the bodily hinge, I wish to add further padding, so it appears prefer it has the identical padding on the left facet as the opposite objects with padding. If I don’t add further, it is going to fall too near the hinge. As a result of I have already got a grid-gap of 1rem and I wish to double the padding, I’ll add 3rem as an alternative of 4rem which supplies us our ultimate structure on a dual-screen gadget:

Final adjusted layout with padding and margin added back in to my layout for a dual screen device
I can re-add extra appropriately sized padding to show content material, so it isn’t obscured on a tool with a bodily hinge. (Massive preview)

With just a few small changes to our CSS and the usage of one of many new media options, we’ve a structure that adapts to a dual-screen gadget. To take a look at the expertise, head to the demo web site right here in Edge or a Chromium-based browser and open the browser developer instruments to take a look at Floor Duo emulation. In case you’re opening the positioning in Chrome, make sure the experimental net platform options flag is enabled beneath chrome://flags, in order that the demo shows accurately.

Single Display screen Responsive Design Particulars

And simply to make sure we’re making an allowance for small, single-screen gadgets, the code I select for a structure on a cellphone makes use of flexbox and places every little thing right into a single column:

@media (max-width: 48rem) {

    physique {
        font: 1.3em/1.8 base, 'Playfair Show', serif;
    }

    .recipe-details {
        show: flex;
        flex-direction: column;
    }

}

API Browser Availability And Testing With out A System

These dual-screen APIs can be found in Microsoft Edge and Edge on Android beginning in model 97 by default. These are slated to come back to different Chromium browsers quickly, however there isn’t any confirmed date for when that will likely be. To allow these APIs in Chrome, go to chrome://flags and allow experimental net platform options.

And whereas these are comparatively new gadgets, many at the moment are going into their 2nd and third generations, so corporations are investing in them. In case you can’t get your palms on a bodily gadget, the easiest way to check is within the browser developer instruments. I’ve examined my web site in each the emulation device and on a Floor Duo, and the emulation device for Duo seems to be equivalent. My design appears the identical approach on the gadget because it does within the DevTools. It makes constructing and designing for a dual-screen gadget simply as straightforward as creating for desktop and single display screen cellular gadgets.

In case you are on a desktop or a tool that doesn’t help these APIs, there’s a polyfill out there for the Visible Viewport segments property. There isn’t any API for the CSS Media Queries. At the moment, the dual-screen gadgets available on the market are Android-based, and these APIs are deliberate to be in Chromium-based browsers which can be found on Android.

If a browser on a foldable gadget doesn’t help these options, you may both use the polyfill or guarantee your web site nonetheless renders properly on a small single display screen, because the consumer has the flexibleness to decide on how you can show a web site on a dual-screen gadget. They will span a web site throughout each shows, or they will select to have it span throughout one show, and in the event that they select the latter, it is going to show as it will on a pill or cellphone with a single display screen. Even when your web site doesn’t have a dual-screen implementation, customers can nonetheless go for the one show view. The twin-screen APIs provide a approach to progressively improve the expertise for customers who’ve the gadgets.

Closing

Twin-screen gadgets are simply the following evolution in responsive design. If in case you have a PWA or web site, the APIs out there make integrating into your current code base seamless. There are additionally different methods to construct apps for dual-screen gadgets, which you’ll try on the Floor Duo documentation. It’s an thrilling time for structure on the net, and twin screens present a possibility to get much more inventive.

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